file:///C|/4-h_horse_judging_manual/horse_judging.htm (10 of 23)5/25/2005 6:32:33 AM 4-H Horse Judging Manual Tied-In—The tendons come in too sharply behind the knee, preventing the horse from firmly locking its knees in place.
BACK LEGS, PROFILE (side view) Sickle-Hocked—The hock has too much angle, so the horse stands underneath itself from the hock down.
Post-Legged—The hock has too little angle, so the hock joint appears straight.
Camped-Under—The entire hind leg is set too far under the hindquarters.
BACK LEGS, REAR VIEW Cow-Hocked—The hock joints point inward toward each other, and the feet are widely separated.
Bandy-Legged—The hocks are set wider apart than the horse stands.
Back Common blemishes FEET (See Figures 4c and 4d for examples of selected blemishes.) Toe Crack—The front part of the hoof wall is split.
Quarter Crack—The quarter (side) area of the hoof toward the heel is split.
Contracted Heel—The heels of the feet, especially the front, are extremely low and narrow.
Club-Footed—The hoof is extremely upright in appearance and has a different, steeper angle than the pastern, as compared to the other hoof; the coronary band when viewed from the rear is higher off the ground.
Coon-Footed—Both hooves are extremely upright in appearance with a steeper angle than the pastern.
LEGS Bowed Tendon—An excessive stretching and tearing of the tendons has occurred, normally on the front legs.
After the tendon has healed, it still appears stretched and looks like the curve of a bow.
Osselets—Small enlargements have developed around the fetlock joints, caused by a traumatic arthritis.
Ringbone—A bony enlargement surrounds the pastern bone.
Sidebones—Ossification or calcification of the cartilage around the pasterns has occurred.
Splint—A bony enlargement on the splint bone on the inside of the cannon bones, normally caused by interference or offset knees, has developed.
Windpuff—A soft swelling of the joint or tendons, usually in the fetlocks, has developed.
Bucked Shins—An inflammation of the shins has occurred.
Capped Elbow or “Shoe Boil”—This swelling at the point of the elbow is caused by a horse’s injuring itself, normally by its shoes, when the horse is lying down.
Bone Spavin or “Jack Spavin”—A bony enlargement on the inside of the hock has occurred. file:///C|/4-h_horse_judging_manual/horse_judging.htm (11 of 23)5/25/2005 6:32:33 AM 4-H Horse Judging Manual Bog Spavin—The soft tissues of the hock have swollen.
Thoroughpin—A swelling in the hollows of the hock has developed.
Capped Hock—This swelling at the point of the hock is caused by injury.
Curb—A bony enlargement on the plantar ligament just below the hock joint, is caused by trauma; it is frequently seen on sickle-hocked horses.
BODY Fistula or “Sinus of the Withers”—Injury causes this hole or indention on the withers, which drains continuously.
Sweeney—A depression in the muscles of the shoulder is caused by trauma or bruising.
Hernia—Tissue protrudes through an abnormal opening in the body cavity.
Back General criteria for judging performance classes Quality of movement or way of going—When judging a performance class, one of the most important criteria is how the horse moves, or its way of going.
Of course, ideal movement depends on the breed of horse, but an easy way to break it down is to separate all horses into several general categories: stock-type/hunter-type, saddle-type breeds, and Tennessee Walking Horses.
All stock-type/hunter-type breeds, including, but not limited, to the Quarter Horse, Palomino, Paint, Appaloosa, and any United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) huntertypes (normally Throughbreds and all warmblood breeds) stress the same characteristics in movement.
All of these breeds should have a long stride with lots of drive from the hindquarters.
Therefore, these horses should walk, trot, and canter with a flat knee, working close to the ground, and have proper flexion from the hocks.
The saddle-type breeds, including the Arabian, Saddlebred, etc., exhibit more snap and action to both the knees and hocks.
They still have a long stride, but these breeds exhibit more “brilliance” when moving and will appear flashier, with their forearms breaking more nearly parallel to the ground, instead of hitting the ground with a flatter knee, as in stock- or hunter-type breeds.
Tennessee Walking Horses still have the same brilliance of movement as the saddle-type breeds, but they exhibit a “rolling” type of action on the front end, where their forearms break more nearly level and then “roll” outward.
They also drive extremely deeply off the hock, and their hind feet should overstep the footprints that were left by the front feet. Collection—Collection can be described as how well a horse “compresses” its frame.
The normal horse carries approximately 65 percent of its body weight on its front legs and only 35 percent on its hind legs.
By collecting a horse, or making it reach deeper under its body with its hindquarters and hocks, the properly collected horse carries closer to 50 percent of its weight on the front end and 50 percent on the rear.
By equalizing its weight distribution, a horse is more balanced and better able to perform and is less likely to trip or have trouble executing particular maneuvers. Impulsion—Impulsion is basically how much drive or power a horse exhibits from its hindquarters.
Therefore, in order for a horse to exhibit a high degree of impulsion, it must drive deeply off its hocks and use the hindquarters to propel the rest of the body forward.
Impulsion is normally a criterion that is more important in hunter-type breeds, as the horse must have enough forward impulsion to thrust itself over fences.
Read more about Bowed Tendon : LEGS Bowed Tendon An excessive stretching and tearing of the….: